There are four frameworks that are necessary for a sustainable social movement. For a social movement to successfully begin, there must be a political opportunity that pushes a critical mass of people to mobilize and push for change, diffuse social networks with a mobilizing structure that promotes solidarity among the critical mass of people, cultural frames that create meaning for the people, and repertoires of contention to provide escalating actions against the opposition.
Tarrow, Sidney. Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics. 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, 1998. Chapters 1 and 5.